John will use several different descriptions of Jesus through the course of his gospel as he introduces us to different aspects of his character. But he uses a very simple term, “The Word” (Greek: logos), to introduce us to him. The significance of Logos is lost in our English world, but means far more than just “word”. “Logos” conveys the entire message, both the said and unsaid.
To the Greeks in John’s day, the gods were distant. The philosopher Plato said, “Maybe one day, a logos (a message or a word) will come from God who will reveal the mysteries and make things plain.” (*)
The Jews in John’s day had a clear understanding of God’s word. The Old Testament contains many references to God’s power and presence expressed through his word. For example:
By the word of the LORD the heavens were made, and by the breath of his mouth all their host. (Psalms 33:6)
But John makes this more personal. Not only does the Word (logos) signify the power and the presence of God, but it is also a person. This man that John has come to know is more than a mere human! To the Greeks, he is the one who will reveal the mysteries. To the Jews, he is the power and the presence of God. But he is more than a mere force — he became human and lived among us!
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
He was in the beginning with God.
All things were made through him, and without him was not any thing made that was made.
In him was life, and the life was the light of men.
The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it.
The true light, which gives light to everyone, was coming into the world.
John starts out his gospel with an extended introduction to The Word (logos). In many ways, this introduction is a summary of the entire gospel:
- The Word is fully God (he was with God and he was God)
- The Word has God’s attributes, including eternity (in the beginning), power (creation)
- The Word is the source of all life
- The Word is the source of all goodness. He stands against evil and is greater than Evil (referenced by light vs. darkness) 
- The Word is the true light. The real thing!
But there are more personal notes about The Word:
There was a man sent from God, whose name was John. He came as a witness, to bear witness about the light, that all might believe through him. He was not the light, but came to bear witness about the light.
John the Baptist (not the author) is sent ahead as a witness of the Word. John only lived to reflect the light back on Him. 
The true light, which gives light to everyone, was coming into the world. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, yet the world did not know him. He came to his own, and his own people did not receive him. But to all who did receive him, who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God, who were born, not of blood nor of the will of the flesh nor of the will of man, but of God.
Sadly, The Word came to his own country, but his own people rejected him. But therein is also the good news: he gives the right to be children of God to those who do receive him!
This is the core of our confusion about Jesus Christ. The point here is very clear and very simple: Jesus — the very one who made the world — came into the world. Yet the world did not know him. His own people did not receive him.
But the good news is also here: he has given the right to be God’s children to those who did receive him!
This is a critical point: what does it mean to receive him? Jesus came with a message of who he is. He also came with a call. When we receive him, we yield our allegiance to him. It means that we believe who he is and have placed our faith in him.  This challenge is the same for us in the 21st century as it was for those who lived with Jesus in the 1st century.
And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we have seen his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father, full of grace and truth.
For from his fullness we have all received, grace upon grace. For the law was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ.
John (the author) has personally seen the glory of the Son of God. But his fullness and his grace is not only limited to the eyewitnesses: we can all receive his grace. Not just once, but over and over again (“grace upon grace”).
In case you have any doubts about who The Word is, John concludes his prologue with a very specific ending: “grace and truth came through Jesus Christ”.
Jesus Christ is the Word (logos) from God. But he is more than a message. He is more than power. He is God himself!
 John 1:5 says, “The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it”. This allusion of light vs. darkness contains much more truth than can be elaborated on here. The light vs. darkness is often referenced in the Old Testament as well as the New Testament (see also Isaiah 9:2). Both light and darkness are personified here. The light actively invades the kingdom of darkness. The kingdom of darkness attemts to destroy the light but fails. Here is a brief overview of the ministry of Jesus Christ as the light: he comes to earth and enters the domain of Satan. Satan seeks to destroy him and finally to kill him on earth, but Satan ultimately fails.
 The term “witness” cannot be overstated here. The original word, martyria (also our root word for “martyr”) is used three times in 1:6-8 alone to describe John the Baptist. John’s purpose was to be witness of Jesus Christ. John shows his personal zeal later in the chapter (1:19-28), emphasizing that he is not to be compared with the coming messiah.
 This is paraphrased from John MacArthur, “To receive him who is the Word of God means to acknowledge his claims, place one’s faith in him, and thereby yield allegiance to him.” (MacArthur Study Bible Notes, John 1:12)
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