The New Testament says a lot about the Holy Spirit. In the book of Ephesians, we are told to be filled with (literally, “dominated by”) the Holy Spirit (Ephesians 5:18-21). The book of Galatians contains the famous passage about living in the Spirit and the fruit (effects) of The Spirit (Galatians 5:22-23).
But what did Jesus say about the Holy Spirit? Up to this point, Jesus has taught extensively about God the Father and God the Son. As seen in John 5, the Father and the Son are totally equal and abide together in total intimacy.
But Jesus has not taught directly about God the Holy Spirit until now. He alluded to the Holy Spirit in John 3 and John 7, but he did not directly teach about the Holy Spirit until he was ready to leave.
Jesus’ entire ministry was a living demonstration of the Holy Spirit. Jesus surrendered the use of his divine attributes when he came to earth. This included his omnipotence (being all-powerful) and omniscience (being all-knowing) (see here). He lived on earth with the same limitations of humanity, except that he had no sin (see here). He totally relied on the Holy Spirit for direction, knowledge, and power to perform miracles.
The Holy Spirit descended on Jesus Christ when he was baptized by John (see here). The Holy Spirit led Jesus into the wilderness, where he was tempted by Satan (see here). He gave him supernatural knowledge about the Samaritan woman (see here). Most notably, when the Pharisees accused Jesus of doing miracles by the power of the devil, Jesus condemned them for blasphemy against the Holy Spirit (see here and here). The miracles of Jesus were done through the Holy Spirit.
But now Jesus is leaving. He promises to send the Holy Spirit, the same person who enabled him through his ministry on earth. The Holy Spirit will come as a helper, one who will come alongside believers in this world.
Who is the Holy Spirit?
Who is the Holy Spirit?
Jesus also refers to Him as the Helper (also translated “comforter”) and the “Spirit of Truth”.
The Holy Spirit is a person, not an impersonal force. The world does not know him, he dwells with you. He will teach you. …
The Holy Spirit is God. Jesus promises to send another helper, literally, “one who is exactly like me”. He will come from the Father.
The Holy Spirit will be with us forever. Old Testament saints knew that the Spirit of God would come upon people for a short time, but now he promises to stay with us forever!
The Holy Spirit will lead us to the truth. He is the Spirit of Truth. He is our divine teacher who will bring God’s Word to our mind, and will illuminate His Word so that we can understand it.
The Holy Spirit is unknowable to the unbelieving world. Those without Christ cannot see or know the Holy Spirit. By contrast, he will show himself to those who believe.
The Holy Spirit is in complete unity with God the Father and God the Son. The Father sends the Holy Spirit in the name of the Son.
The Holy Spirit will glorify Jesus Christ. The Holy Spirit reveals Him to those who believe. His ministry always points back to Jesus Christ.
“And he is the comforter. We often believe that the comforter is like a warm fuzzy blanket, but he is the strength that will give us the ability to stand against evil. He fortifies us with supernatural strength.” – Stephen Davey 
The role of the Holy Spirit with the unbelieving world
The Holy Spirit shows Jesus Christ, even to those who do not believe. He is the voice behind the persecuted Christians who tell of Jesus, even when it leads them to torture or death. The Spirit of Truth will bear witness of Jesus Christ.
The Holy Spirit will either convince or convict those who do not know Jesus. If He does not convince you to believe in Jesus, He will be the one to convict you. If he cannot persuade you, he will pronounce the sentence of eternal punishment.
He shows you your sin. If you do not believe in him, your unbelief will be the one sin that condemns you (John 3:18).
“… the outstanding sin which will separate you from God forever will be that you rejected the Savior whom He has provided.” – H.A. Ironside 
He shows you the standard of what it means to be “righteous”. There was only one perfect person — Jesus Christ! Jesus defeated death and is now with God the Father. He sits with the Father in complete perfection.
He shows you your ultimate destiny if you do not believe. Satan, the ruler of the world, is already judged. Those who refuse Jesus Christ will face judgement with him.
“If Jesus Christ swung the death blow at Satan and hit dead center, you don’t think that someone less than Satan is going to get away. When Satan was judged, every man and every angel that ever attached himself to Satan was damned with him.” – John MacArthur 
The role of the Holy Spirit with believers
Jesus tells his 11 terrified companions that this is to their advantage that he leave them. Why?
What could be better than living with God himself? They had spent over three years with him!
How can this be an advantage?
Jesus was limited by his human body. While Jesus was in one place on earth, the Holy Spirit can be everywhere. While Jesus was with some believers on earth, the Holy Spirit will be in all believers.
The Holy Spirit teaches wherever God’s Word is present. When Jesus taught in one city, the next city was not able to hear the Word of God. Without the Holy Spirit, the Gospel could never spread across the entire world.
The Holy Spirit gives understanding. The disciples could not understand what Jesus did and what He taught. They needed the Holy Spirit to give them understanding (John 12:16).
Below is just a sampling of the many ways that the Holy Spirit works in the lives of believers :
- He directed the writers of scripture (2 Peter 1:20; 1 Corinthians 2:9-10)
- He restricts and convicts the world of Sin (John 16:8-10; Acts 7:51)
- He regenerates the believer to a new life (John 3:5-8)
- He baptizes all believers (1 Corinthians 12:13)
- He indwells believers (Romans 8:9-11; 1 Corinthians 3:16, 6:19)
- He helps / comes alongside believers (John 14:16-17, 15:26, 16:7)
- He strengthens believers with his power (Ephesians 3:16)
- He fills believers (Luke 4:1; Acts 2:4; Ephesians 5:18)
- He sanctifies believers (Romans 15:16; 2 Thessalonians 2:13)
- He intercedes for believers (Romans 8:26-27)
- He seals and guarantees believers (2 Corinthians 1:22; 2 Corinthians 5:5; Ephesians 1:13-14; Ephesians 4:30)
- He guards believers (2 Timothy 1:14)
- He provides spiritual fruit with Godly character (Galatians 5:16-25)
- He teaches believers (John 14:26; Acts 15:28; 1 John 2:20-27)
- He shows God’s mind to believers (1 Corinthians 2:10-13)
- He gives spiritual gifts to believers (Romans 12:6-8; 1 Corinthians 12:4-11)
- He calls believers to ministry (Acts 13:2-4)
- He directs believers to roles within the church (Acts 20:28)
- He empowers believers for witnessing (Acts 1:8)
- He provides fellowship to believers (2 Corinthians 13:14; Philippians 2:1)
- He is the source of unity among believers (Ephesians 4:3-4)
- He is the source of liberty to believers (2 Corinthians 3:17-18)
“He opens up the riches of grace and love, and gives us to know the wealth of the realm over which Christ is set and which we are to share with Him.” – H.A. Ironside 
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